1st Bull Run
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On a bright Sunday morning on July 21, 1861, the first real major battle in the Civil War occurred between the North, and South. This famous battle was known as the First Bull Run which took place in Manassas, Virginia. With the Union (North) army commanded under Gen. Irvin McDowell, consisting of about 30,000 men, they challenged the Confederates (South), who were under command of Gen. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard who had an army of about 33,000 men.
As the Union army was marching strong towards Richmond, the Confederates who came from the northern direction in Manassas, which lies their base, interrupted them. Five hours later, the Union was able to fight back holding on strong, causing the Confederates to retreat. Suddenly, out of nowhere Gen. Jackson from the Confederates came to the rescue with more men. With his troop, Jackson fought back with incredible defense being able to fight against the Union. Jackson, and his defense seemed like a "stonewall". That is where Gen. Jackson got his nickname known as Gen."Stonewall" Jackson.
With the Union still struggling, trying to fight back, it got worse. By Henry House Hill where Gen. Beauregard's troop was, more of his men came helping the South being under command of Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston. With 2,900 men killed on the North side, this battle was a big win for the South who was victorious against the North having 2,000 men killed in the battle.
WHO WERE THE KEY FIGURES?
General Irvin McDowell- Gen. Irvin McDowell was the main general representing the Union (North.) He was born in Columbus, Ohio. In his early days, he attended high school in France, and later graduated from West Point. He was also a classmate of Gen. Beauregard, the general who commanded the South side of the battle. After the Union's terrible loss against the Confederates in First Bull Run, Gen. McDowell commanded another army in Washington D.C. He was also involved in the battle of Second Bull Run, being in charge. He then later retired in 1882.
General P.G.T Beauregard- General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was a Louisiana boy, and graduated from West Point. He fought in the Mexican War. Gen. Beauregard was one of the reasons why First Bull Run occurred because him, and his troops in Charleston, attacked Fort Sumter with cannons firing, destroying the harbor. He commanded other troops such as Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. In 1862, Gen. Beauregard was forced to retire because of the illness he was suffering. After 1865, he worked in the railroad industry, and stayed in his nice comfy home in Louisiana.
General Joseph E. Johnston- General Johnston played a pretty much big role in the battle of First Bull Run. If he did not reach Henry House Hill in time to help Gen. Beuregard, there would've been a chance where the North would've defeated the South. Before the Civil War began, Gen. Johnston was involved in many other wars in the past, such as: The Mexican War, the Second Seminole War, and the Black Hawk War. Being assigned as a major general, Johnston commanded many other army troops such as: the army of North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, Potomac, and the army of Northern Virginia. After his battle in Bull Run, he was disappointed about not being ranked to full general, thinking his was the best officer in the U.S. Army of the Confederates.
WHY DID FIRST BULL RUN OCCUR?
As explained earlier, one of the reasons why First Bull Run occured was because of Gen. Beauregard, and his army who attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, North Carolina. It was very devastating, so the Union started to plan. There main plan was to stop Gen. Beauregard and his army from continuing their brutal attacks. So they planned to march thirty miles allthe way to Bull Run, and hopefully defeat the Confederates, stopping them from attacking. Unfourtanetly, there were spies on the Union side, trying to get the inside scoop of what the Union's are planning. So there was one spy who found out about Gen. McDowell and his army planning to stop Gen. Beauregard. So the news got all the way to Gen. Beauregard, warning him. So he came prepared, meeting the Union at First Bull Run, defeating the Union.
EVENTS THAT HAPPENED DURING THAT YEAR
April 10, 1861-Russia grants Finland a constitution.
May 13, 1861-Britain proclaims herself neutral in the American war.
September 16, 1861-Post office savings bank is built in Britain.
1861-Jose' Antonio Paez becomes a dictator of Venezuela.
1861-Mohammed Said died, and Ismail became Khedive of Egypt.
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